Water is the most abundant constituent of the body .Water is necessary for life because it regulates body temperature, as a dietary minerals,acts as a reactants ,as a solvent ,flushes toxins from the body, maintaining blood volume, lubricating joints, and transports nutrients throughout the body. An adult’s body is roughly 55% to 60% water[1]of males and females .

The percentage is significantly higher among children and newborns.Dehydration is caused by a lack of water intake or excessive water loss (such as sweating). This can be hazardous, if not lethal.

Water’s Significance

  1. Water is required for the majority of bodily activities, including:
  2. Keep the bladder free of bacteria to reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) including cystitis.
  3. Mucous membranes should be moistened (such as those of the lungs and mouth).
  4. Joints should be lubricated and cushioned.
  5. Maintain the circulation sufficiently liquid to allow it to pass via blood arteries.
  6. Aid in the elimination of metabolic by-products, excess electrolytes (for example, salt and potassium), and urea, a waste product generated during the digestion of ingested protein.
  7. Sweating helps to regulate body temperature.
  8. Improve digestion and keep constipation at bay.
  9. Moisturize your skin to keep its texture and appearance.
  10. Transport nutrient and oxygen to cells.
  11. During pregnancy it function as a shock absorber, it can be found inside the eyes, spinal cord, and the amniotic sac that surrounds the foetus.
  12. Preserve the health and integrity of all bodily cells.
  • Do you know:

Getting the right amount of fluid in your system is essential because Lack of water intake can increase the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and kidney stones in women. Additionally, it can impair your capacity for both physical and mental work, interfere with salivary gland operation, and cause dehydration.

However, did you know that consuming too much water can result in a condition known as hyponatraemia (water intoxication)?

Although it is relatively uncommon in the general population, drinking too much water can harm the body and result in hyponatraemia (water intoxication). When blood sodium levels fall to an unsafely low level, which is required for muscle contraction and the transmission of nerve impulses, hyponatraemia occurs. When large amounts of plain water are ingested quickly, the kidneys are unable to eliminate enough fluid through urine, and the blood becomes diluted as a result. Hyponatraemia may result in: headaches cramps and blurred vision can lead to convulsions. swelling of the brain, a possible fatal coma. It would take consuming a lot of water quickly for the level of toxicity to be reached. People with specific illnesses or mental conditions are more likely to experience hyponatraemia.

  • Hydration: Benefits of hydrating the body & Daily adequate intake of water
AgeApproximate daily intake of water (cups/ ounces/litre)*
Children 0-6 mos.3 cup /24ounces/0.71L
Children 7-12 mos.3⅓ cup/27ounces/0.80L
Children 1-3 yrs.5½ cup/44ounces/1.30L
Children 4-8 yrs.7cup/58ounces/1.71L
Boys 9-13 yrs.10 cups/81ounces/2.4L
Girls 9-13 yrs.9cups/71 ounces/2.09L
Boys 14-18 yrs.14 cups/112 ounces/3.31L
Girls 14-18 yrs.10 cups/79 ounces/2.34L
Men 19≥ yrs.15½ cups/125ounces/3.7L
Women 19≥ yrs.11½ /91 ounces/2.7L
Pregnant women13 cups/104 ounces/3.07L
Breastfeeding women16 cups/128 ounces/3.78L

*Includes water contained in food, beverages, and drinking water

SOURCE: Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2005. (accessed April 19, 2018)


Although water consumption is generally safe, excessive water consumption, can lead to hyperhydration, which can be fatal. Consuming a lot of water does not usually result in dehydration if the kidneys, heart, and pituitary gland are all working normally. To exceed the body’s ability to excrete water, an adult would have to consume more than 2 gallons (7.6 L) every day. Increased water consumption can develop hyponatremia by diluting sodium levels in the body.

Overhydration is more common in people whose kidneys do not work regularly, such as those with renal, heart, or liver illness. It is occasionally observed in infants who have consumed an excessive amount of water, either because they are solely given water to drink or because excessive water is used to dilute infant formulae.

Water intoxication can also occur as a result of acute vomiting or diarrhoea in which the fluid is replaced with water but the electrolytes are not restored. Athletes who have exerted themselves excessively may perspire excessively and, if the fluid loss is replaced with water devoid of electrolytes, may experience water intoxication. Symptoms of water intoxication are similar to those of dehydration: muscle cramps, confusion, nausea, slurred speech, and disorientation. Rehydrating involves drinking just enough water to make up for the amount lost through perspiration. Fluids that are forced can be harmful. Sports drinks may contain a lot of calories even though they replace electrolytes. It has been suggested that drinking the recommended amount of water is the best way to rehydrate people who are exercising to lose weight.[2]

  • Tables:

SOURCE: Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2005. (accessed April 19, 2018).

  • Reference:

[1]Ohashi Y, Sakai K, Hase H, Joki N. Dry weight targeting: The art and science of conventional hemodialysis. Semin Dial. 2018;31(6):551-556. doi:10.1111/sdi.12721

[2] Gray, R. W., et al. “Increasing Preload Volume with Water Reduces Rated Appetite but Not Food Intake in Healthy Men Even with Minimum Delay Between Preload and Test Meal.” Nutritional Neuroscience 6, no. 1 (2003): 29–37.


Nutritionist Debjani Mondal (food and nutrition), Certified Diabetes Educator.

Nutritionist content writer of TEAM NUTRI WORLD.

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